Changes between Version 2 and Version 3 of TracEnvironment


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Timestamp:
Jul 18, 2019, 10:38:41 AM (3 years ago)
Author:
trac
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  • TracEnvironment

    v2 v3  
    1 = The Trac Environment =
     1= The Trac Environment
    22
    3 Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the “environment”.
     3[[TracGuideToc]]
     4[[PageOutline(2-5,Contents,pullout)]]
    45
    5 == Creating an Environment ==
     6Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the '''environment'''.
    67
    7 A new Trac environment is created using  [TracAdmin#initenv trac-admin's initenv]:
    8 {{{
     8Trac supports [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] and [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] databases. With PostgreSQL and MySQL you have to create the database before running `trac-admin initenv`.
     9
     10== Creating an Environment
     11
     12A new Trac environment is created using the [TracAdmin#initenv initenv] command:
     13{{{#!sh
    914$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv
    1015}}}
    1116
    12 `trac-admin` will ask you for the name of the project and the
    13 database connection string (explained below).
     17`trac-admin` will ask you for the name of the project and the [#DatabaseConnectionStrings database connection string].
    1418
    15 === Some Useful Tips
     19=== Useful Tips
    1620
    17  - Place your environment's directory on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac monitors the timestamp of its configuration files and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution may go undetected in Trac < 1.0.2 (this is also true for the location of authentication files when using TracStandalone).
     21 - Place your environment's directory on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac monitors the timestamp of its configuration files and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution may go undetected in Trac < 1.0.2. This is also true for the location of authentication files when using TracStandalone.
    1822
    19  - The user under which the web server runs will require file system write permission to
    20  the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set
    21  the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the source code repository,
    22  although the user under which Trac runs will only require write access to a Subversion repository created with the BDB file system; for other repository types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
     23 - The user under which the web server runs will require file system write permission to the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the source code repository, although the user under which Trac runs will only require write access to a Subversion repository created with the BDB file system; for other repository types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
    2324 
    24  - `initenv`, when using an svn repository, does not imply that trac-admin will perform `svnadmin create` for the specified repository path. You need to perform the `svnadmin create` prior to `trac-admin initenv` if you're creating a new svn repository altogether with a new trac environment, otherwise you will see a message "Warning: couldn't index the repository" when initializing the environment.
     25 - `initenv` does not create a version control repository for the specified path. If you wish to specify a default repository using the optional arguments to `initenv` you must create the repository first, otherwise you will see a message when initializing the environment: //Warning: couldn't index the default repository//.
    2526
    26  - Non-ascii environment paths are not supported
    27  
    28  - Also, it seems that project names with spaces can be problematic for authentication (see [trac:#7163]).
     27 - Non-ascii environment paths are not supported.
    2928
    30  - TracPlugins located in a [TracIni#inherit-section shared plugins folder] that is defined in an [TracIni#GlobalConfiguration inherited configuration] are currently not loaded during creation, and hence, if they need to create extra tables for example, you'll need to [TracUpgrade#UpgradetheTracEnvironment upgrade the environment] before being able to use it.
     29 - TracPlugins located in a [TracIni#inherit-plugins_dir-option shared plugins directory] that is defined in an [TracIni#GlobalConfiguration inherited configuration] are not enabled by default, in contrast to plugins in the environment `plugins` directory. Hence, if they need to create extra tables, for example, the tables will not be created during environment creation and you'll need to [TracUpgrade#UpgradetheTracEnvironment upgrade the environment]. Alternatively you can avoid the need to upgrade the environment by explicitly enabling the plugin in the inherited configuration, or in a configuration file using the `--config` option. See TracAdmin#FullCommandReference for more information.
    3130
    32 == Database Connection Strings ==
     31{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em;"
     32**Caveat:** don't confuse the //Trac environment directory// with the //source code repository directory//.
    3333
    34 Since version 0.9, Trac supports both [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite] and
    35 [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] database backends.  Preliminary
    36 support for [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] was added in 0.10.  The default is
    37 to use SQLite, which is probably sufficient for most projects. The database
    38 file is then stored in the environment directory, and can easily be
    39 [wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment.
     34This is a common beginners' mistake.
     35It happens that the structure for a Trac environment is loosely modeled after the Subversion repository directory structure, but those are two disjoint entities and they are not and //must not// be located at the same place.
     36}}}
    4037
    41 Note that if the username or password of the connection string (if applicable) contains the `:`, `/` or `@` characters, they need to be URL encoded.
     38== Database Connection Strings
    4239
    43 === SQLite Connection String ===
     40You will need to specify a database connection string at the time the environment is created. The default is SQLite, which is sufficient for most projects. The SQLite database file is stored in the environment directory, and can easily be [wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment.
     41
     42Note that if the username or password of the connection string (if applicable) contains the `:`, `/` or `@` characters, they need to be [http://meyerweb.com/eric/tools/dencoder/ URL encoded].
     43{{{#!sh
     44$ python -c "import urllib; print urllib.quote('password@:/123', '')"
     45password%40%3A%2F123
     46}}}
     47
     48=== SQLite Connection String
     49
    4450The connection string for an SQLite database is:
    4551{{{
     
    4854where `db/trac.db` is the path to the database file within the Trac environment.
    4955
    50 === PostgreSQL Connection String ===
    51 If you want to use PostgreSQL or MySQL instead, you'll have to use a
    52 different connection string. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL
    53 database on the same machine called `trac`, that allows access to the
    54 user `johndoe` with the password `letmein`, use:
     56See [trac:DatabaseBackend#SQLite] for more information.
     57
     58=== PostgreSQL Connection String
     59
     60The connection string for PostgreSQL is a bit more complex. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL database named `trac` on `localhost` for user `johndoe` and password `letmein`, use:
    5561{{{
    5662postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost/trac
    5763}}}
    5864
    59 If PostgreSQL is running on a non-standard port (for example 9342), use:
     65If PostgreSQL is running on a non-standard port, for example 9342, use:
    6066{{{
    6167postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost:9342/trac
    6268}}}
    6369
    64 On UNIX, you might want to select a UNIX socket for the transport,
    65 either the default socket as defined by the PGHOST environment variable:
     70On UNIX, you might want to select a UNIX socket for the transport, either the default socket as defined by the PGHOST environment variable:
    6671{{{
    6772postgres://user:password@/database
    6873}}}
     74
    6975or a specific one:
    7076{{{
     
    7278}}}
    7379
    74 Note that with PostgreSQL you will have to create the database before running
    75 `trac-admin initenv`.
    76 
    7780See the [http://www.postgresql.org/docs/ PostgreSQL documentation] for detailed instructions on how to administer [http://postgresql.org PostgreSQL].
    78 Generally, the following is sufficient to create a database user named `tracuser`, and a database named `trac`.
    79 {{{
    80 createuser -U postgres -E -P tracuser
    81 createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac
    82 }}}
    83 When running `createuser` you will be prompted for the password for the user 'tracuser'. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the `-P` and `-E` options from the `createuser` command.  Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors trac's use of unicode in trac.  SQL_ASCII also seems to work.
    84 
    85 Under some default configurations (debian) one will have run the `createuser` and `createdb` scripts as the `postgres` user.  For example:
    86 {{{
    87 sudo su - postgres -c 'createuser -U postgres -S -D -R -E -P tracuser'
    88 sudo su - postgres -c 'createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac'
     81Generally, the following is sufficient to create a database user named `tracuser` and a database named `trac`:
     82{{{#!sh
     83$ createuser -U postgres -E -P tracuser
     84$ createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac
    8985}}}
    9086
    91 Trac uses the `public` schema by default but you can specify a different schema in the connection string:
     87When running `createuser` you will be prompted for the password for the `tracuser`. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a Trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the `-P` and `-E` options from the `createuser` command. Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors, because of Trac's use of unicode.
     88
     89Under some default configurations (Debian), run the `createuser` and `createdb` scripts as the `postgres` user:
     90{{{#!sh
     91$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createuser -U postgres -S -D -R -E -P tracuser'
     92$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac'
     93}}}
     94
     95Trac uses the `public` schema by default, but you can specify a different schema in the connection string:
    9296{{{
    9397postgres://user:pass@server/database?schema=yourschemaname
    9498}}}
    9599
    96 === MySQL Connection String ===
     100=== MySQL Connection String
    97101
    98 The format of the MySQL connection string is similar to the examples presented for PostgreSQL, with the `postgres` schema being replaced by `mysql`. For example, to connect to a MySQL
    99 database on the same machine called `trac`, allowing access to the
    100 user `johndoe` with the password `letmein`, the mysql connection string is:
     102The format of the MySQL connection string is similar to PostgreSQL, with the `postgres` scheme being replaced by `mysql`. For example, to connect to a MySQL database on `localhost` named `trac` for user `johndoe` with password `letmein`:
    101103{{{
    102104mysql://johndoe:letmein@localhost:3306/trac
    103105}}}
    104106
    105 == Source Code Repository ==
     107== Source Code Repository
    106108
    107 Since version 0.12, a single Trac environment can be connected to more than one repository. There are many different ways to connect repositories to an environment, see TracRepositoryAdmin. This page also details the various attributes that can be set for a repository (like `type`, `url`, `description`).
     109A single environment can be connected to more than one repository. However, by default Trac is not connected to any source code repository, and the ''Browse Source'' navigation item will not be displayed.
    108110
    109 In Trac 0.12 `trac-admin` no longer asks questions related to repositories. Therefore, by default Trac is not connected to any source code repository, and the ''Browse Source'' toolbar item will not be displayed.
    110 You can also explicitly disable the `trac.versioncontrol.*` components (which are otherwise still loaded)
    111 {{{
    112 [components]
    113 trac.versioncontrol.* = disabled
    114 }}}
     111There are several ways to connect repositories to an environment, see TracRepositoryAdmin. A single repository can be specified when the environment is created by passing the optional arguments `repository_type` and `repository_dir` to the `initenv` command.
    115112
    116 For some version control systems, it is possible to specify not only the path to the repository,
    117 but also a ''scope'' within the repository. Trac will then only show information
    118 related to the files and changesets below that scope. The Subversion backend for
    119 Trac supports this; for other types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
     113== Directory Structure
    120114
    121 Example of a configuration for a Subversion repository used as the default repository:
    122 {{{
    123 [trac]
    124 repository_type = svn
    125 repository_dir = /path/to/your/repository
    126 }}}
    127 
    128 The configuration for a scoped Subversion repository would be:
    129 {{{
    130 [trac]
    131 repository_type = svn
    132 repository_dir = /path/to/your/repository/scope/within/repos
    133 }}}
    134 
    135 == Directory Structure ==
    136 
    137 An environment directory will usually consist of the following files and directories:
     115An environment consists of the following files and directories:
    138116
    139117 * `README` - Brief description of the environment.
    140  * `VERSION` - Contains the environment version identifier.
    141  * `attachments` - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets are stored here.
     118 * `VERSION` - Environment version identifier.
     119 * `files`
     120  * `attachments` - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets.
    142121 * `conf`
    143    * `trac.ini` - Main configuration file. See TracIni.
     122  * `trac.ini` - Main [TracIni configuration file].
    144123 * `db`
    145    * `trac.db` - The SQLite database (if you're using SQLite).
    146  * `htdocs` - directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in Genshi templates using `/htdocs/site/...` URLs. ''(since 0.11)''
    147  * `log` - default directory for log files, if logging is turned on and a relative path is given.
    148  * `plugins` - Environment-specific [wiki:TracPlugins plugins] (Python eggs or single file plugins, since [trac:milestone:0.10 0.10])
    149  * `templates` - Custom Genshi environment-specific templates. ''(since 0.11)''
    150    * `site.html` - method to customize header, footer, and style, described in TracInterfaceCustomization#SiteAppearance
    151 
    152 === Caveat: don't confuse a ''Trac environment directory'' with the ''source code repository directory'' #Caveat
    153 
    154 This is a common beginners' mistake.
    155 It happens that the structure for a Trac environment is loosely modelled after the Subversion repository directory
    156 structure, but those are two disjoint entities and they are not and ''must not'' be located at the same place.
     124  * `trac.db` - The SQLite database, if you are using SQLite.
     125 * `htdocs` - Directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in templates using the path `/chrome/site/...`.
     126 * `log` - Default directory for log files when `file` logging is enabled and a relative path is given.
     127 * `plugins` - Environment-specific [wiki:TracPlugins plugins].
     128 * `templates` - Custom Genshi environment-specific templates.
     129  * `site.html` - Method to [TracInterfaceCustomization#SiteAppearance customize] the site header, footer, and style.
    157130
    158131----
    159 See also: TracAdmin, TracBackup, TracIni, TracGuide
     132See also: TracAdmin, TracBackup, TracIni