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This guide recommends key resources for finding and using information while conducting research in French Studies.
Organizing your search for information:
- Prepare your research!
- Choose your sources
- Consult the catalogue
- and/ or consult databases
- Find and organize your references
- Evaluate the references
- Present the references in your work
In the library: The Library User Assistance Desk to your immediate left as you enter the library is a good place to start.
By email: Email the librarian responsible for your faculty for a reply during regular working hours.
By telephone: 705-675-4803, or toll free at 1-800-661-1058, ext. 2
For Distance Education students: Telephone: 1-800-661-1058, ext. 2 or email: Distance_l@laurentian.ca
- Multi-disciplinary francophone resource
- Navigate through the sections (particularly humanities and social sciences) or research your subject (ex. adolescence, community, etc).
Subject-specific Encyclopedias and Dictionaries
- Encyclopædia Britannica Online
- International encyclopedia of linguistics
- John Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory & Criticism
- Dictionnaire des auteurs de langue française en Amérique du Nord (online)
- Encyclopaedia Universalis (online)
- Lexique des termes littéraires (online)
- Dictionnaire culturel en langue française
- Dictionnaire de critique littéraire
- Dictionnaire des expressions et tournures calquées sur l'anglais
- Dictionnaire des grandes œuvres de la littérature française
- Dictionnaire des termes littéraires
- Dictionnaire du littéraire
- Dictionnaire du roman
- Dictionnaires français et littératures québécoise et canadienne-francaise
- Dictionnaire mondial des littératures
- Encyclopédie de la littérature
- Glossaire bilingue des termes littéraires : français-anglais
- La littérature française de A à Z
- Linguistique et sciences du langage
- Nouveau dictionnaire encyclopédique des sciences du langage
- Introduction aux littératures francophones (online)
- Introduction à la littérature franco-ontarienne
- Parcours québécois : introduction à la littérature du Québec (preview in Google Books)
- Introduction à la linguistique contemporaine
- De la linguistique aux sciences du langage (preview in Google Books)
- Le français canadien parlé hors Québec (preview in Google Books)
Quick Tips on Preparing For Research
Before you start:
Understand the key terms you may be using as well as the general area that interests you;
Think about ways to narrow your topic, making it as specific as possible (unless you have been given a specific topic to research);
Create a thesis statement.
- Choose and shape you topic, using:
- Language dictionaries
- Subject-specific dictionaries
- General and subject-specific encyclopedias
- Thesauri for your discipline (often related to a database)
- To narrow your topic, ask the 5 W's and how questions:
- Who? What? When? Where? Why? How?
- Choose your concepts and your limiters:
- Which terms are related to your subject?
- What are its synonyms?
- Which terms should be excluded from your research project?
- Having a list of concepts and limits prepared will facilitate your research.
- Depending on the language of the resources, create a list of terms in both French and English.
French language Dictionaries
- Grand Robert de la langue française (online)
- Trésor de la langue française (online)
- Dictionnaires d'autrefois (online)
- Multidictionnaire de la langue française
- Dictionnaire Hachette
- Dictionnaire historique de la langue française
- Le Petit Larousse
- Dictionnaire des expressions et locutions
- Dictionnaire des synonymes, nuances et contraires
Bilingual Dictionaries French-English
Organization of the Library’s Collection
The Library of Congress Classification System is used to organize:
- Periodicals (PER - 2nd floor)
- Reference documents (REF - 2nd flood)
- Books (3rd floor)
Documents for your discipline are generally found in the following classes:
P 40-381 : Linguistics
PC 2001-3761 : French language
PN : Literature (General)- Literary history
PQ 1-3999 : French Literature
PS 8401 - 8599 : Quebec and French-Canadian literature
The catalogue is your primary tool for finding:
- Books (in print and online)
- Official publications
- Reference works (dictionaries, encyclopedias)
- Titles of journals (and not titles of articles from those journals)
- Documents from the Archives
- Videos (DVD’s and online)
- Documents on microfilm
present in our print and online collections (from the J.N. Desmarais Library., but also from other campus libraries and resources centres).
The interface of the catalogue is available in French and in English.
The French titles are indexed in French and the English titles are indexed in English. Bilingual documents are indexed in both languages.
Under the advanced search tab, it is possible to add language filters, which will only retrieve documents in the language selected.
More on searching the Catalogue is available in Module 5 of the Research Skills Tutorial on D2L.
Not all e-books are indicated in the catalogue. You can equally find them through our Electronic Book Collections.
The following collections contain e-books relevant to linguistics and literature:
See also :
The inter-library loans system, RACER, allows you to borrow documents and obtain articles from other libraries across Canada and from around the world.
Fill out this form to register for the service.
Getting Articles @ Laurentian
In any database, when you see an article that interests you, click on it and, unless the article is available within the database itself, within the record you will see an image that says "Get it @ Laurentian":
When you click on that, you will arrive at a menu which will lead to an electronic copy of the article you want, or, if not available electronically, to Laurentian's catalogue which will allow you to check if the article is available in print in the library, and if not, to a final link which allows you to order the item through Interlibrary loan.
Some Internet Portals
- ABU : la bibliothèque universelle
- Association des auteures et auteurs de l'Ontario français
- L'Île : l'infocentre littéraire des écrivains québécois (see also Écrivains québécois - dossiers L'Île dans Eureka.cc)
- The Linguistic List
In order to find articles from scholarly journals, use the databases.
The majority of the databases include access to the full text of articles.
Note that for a number of databases, you will need to login via the proxy server using your LaurentianID in order to access the resources off-campus.
- Start your research by using keywords that express your topic.
- Use boolean operateurs (AND, OR, NOT) to expand or reduce the number of results.
To broaden the number of results:
To narrow the number of results:
- Explore the bibliographic records of results in order to find more relevant articles.
Journals for French Studies
There are also printed journals as well as electronic journals.
Find Videos in the Catalogue
The catalogue is an important tool for finding videos at Laurentian.
Under the advanced search tab, it is possible to add the filter “video format”, in order to select a desired format.
You can equally browse the catalogue using the following lists:
Need a Film Not in Laurentian's Online Film Collections?
Consult: Watmedia (Provincial Multi-media Catalogue). Material held by Laurentian may be signed out in the library. To order a film not available at Laurentian, please email LUFilmLibrary@laurentian.ca and specify the date(s) you require the item.
Questions: Please contact Ashley Thomson who manages the Intrafilm Project.
We cite sources to acknowledge the work of others, as well as to avoid academic dishonesty or plagiarism.
- Present your bibliography at the end of your work
- Cite your sources while writing
- Follow the model specified by your professor or the discipline
- Make use of the style guide
Zotero is a free, web-based citation manager that allows you to:
- Directly import references from article databases, the library catalogue, e-book collections, etc.
- Manage and organize your references.
- Create a bibliography.
- Share your references with others
- Add in-text citation and a bibliography directly into your assignment
Getting started with Zotero:
APA style (American Psychological Association) is the style most often used in your discipline. APA Style uses the Author-Date system: the citations in the text include the name of the author and the date.
Always follow the specification of your professors, as there can be variations, most notably, norms adopted in French.
- APA Style, by the American Psychological Association
- Citer selon les normes de l'APA, par l'Université de Montréal
- Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 6e ed. (at the information desk)
- APA Style Blog, by the American Psychological Association
- DOI and URL Flowchart, by the American Psychological Association