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Indigenous Programs at Laurentian
Native Studies was first established as an undergraduate program by the University of Sudbury and was recently renamed Indigenous Studies. It publishes the Undergraduate Journal of Indigenous Studies : Dbaajmowin.
At Laurentian itself, the School of Native Human Services, which offered an undergraduate degree in social work, was renamed The School of Indigenous Relations. This School has two programs: The Honours Bachelor of Indigenous Social Work program and the Master of Indigenous Relations program. The School is a proud sponsor of the Indigenous Social Work Journal previously called the Native Social Work Journal.
Courses are also taught from an Indigenous perspective in such disciplines as Architecture, Education, English, Nursing, and Sociology.
The purpose of this guide is to recommend print and electronic resources for conducting research in Indigenous Studies in the libraries on Laurentian University's campus. Click on the tabs on the left for suggestions about starting your research, getting books and articles, and finding other useful tools for research in Indigenous Studies.
To learn more about the library and its resources and how you can exploit them to your advantage, register in the Research Skills Tutorial on D2L. There are several sections in the tutorial with a short quiz at the end of each; at the end you will receive a Certificate of Completion. Many professors require you to take this tutorial--and once you finish it, you can save your certificate to reprint as often as necessary.
In the fall, the library hosts live Orientation tours as well as Zotero classes which you can sign up for at the library's entrance, and even after the formal schedule is finished, we are very happy to put on special classes at the request of at least 5 students. If you would like to arrange a special class, or you think your course would benefit from some in-class library instruction, please ask your professor to contact the librarian responsible for your faculty to set up some sessions.
Subject Librarian: Laurentian
Subject Librarian: University of Sudbury
In the library: The Library User Assistance Desk to your immediate left as you enter the library is a good place to start.
By email: Email the librarian responsible for your faculty for a reply during regular working hours.
By telephone: 705-675-4803, or toll free at 1-800-661-1058, ext. 2
For Distance Education students: Telephone: 1-800-661-1058, ext. 2 or email: Distance_l@laurentian.ca
Quick Tips on Preparing For Research
Before you start:
- understand the key terms you may be using as well as the general area that interests you;
- think about ways to narrow your topic, making it as specific as possible (unless you have been given a specific topic to research!);
- create a thesis statement;
- list the main concepts (key words) included in your thesis statement (research question), then based on your readings;
- find as many synonyms as you can for each main concept. You are now ready to start searching in the library's catalogue and databases.
When you are looking for definitions or if you don’t know much about a specific subject, reference works such as dictionaries and encyclopedias become invaluable because they contain relatively short—and understandable—articles. These articles often lay out the parameters of a subject and can assist you in trying to narrow your topic. Often such articles are accompanied by lists of readings (bibliographies) which allow you to explore your topic further.
A good general reference work is: Native Peoples A to Z : A Reference Guide to Native Peoples of the Western Hemisphere, which the publisher describes as " A current reference work that reflects the changing times and attitudes of, and towards the indigenous peoples of all the regions of the Americas."
Over the years the terminology used to describe Indigenous peoples has changed, especially by non-indigenous peoples when referring to Indigenous peoples. For example, Indian was used for the longest time, but it is no longer viewed as an appropriate term to describe Canada's Indigenous populations. This page provides links to resources that deal with terminology and Indigenous studies:
- Terminology: Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada
- Words First: An Evolving Terminology Relating to Aboriginal Peoples in Canada: Communications Branch, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, September 2004
- Terminology: United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
- American Indian Religious Traditions: An Encyclopedia (full-text ebook)
- Encyclopedia of American Indian History (In Print: U. of S. Ref. E 77 E48 2008)
- Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes (In Print: U. of S. Ref. E 76.2 W35 1999)
- Encyclopedia of North American Indians (full-text ebook)
- The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes (REF E77 G15 1998)
- Handbook of North American Indians (REF E 77 H26)
Why Use Books?
- Books are extremely valuable resources when doing in-depth research on a topic! Authors have hundreds of pages to give detailed explanations and background information surrounding the various facets of your research interest.
- Using this kind of in-depth information will make it easier to form a research question or thesis statement (or even spark your inspiration)
- The bibliographies found in books are extensive, and will point you to other resources to add to your own resource list.
- Remember: scholars write journal articles under the assumption that you already have a relatively thorough understanding of the topic – this means that you will likely not find the foundational information needed for your topic in the beginning stages of your research process. In this sense, books become indispensable
Searching the Catalogue
The catalogue is your primary tool for finding books in the J.N. Desmarais Library. You can also use the catalogue to find other materials, including government publications and journals (the journals themselves--not individual articles).
You can search the catalogue by:
- Journal Title
When you know the book you are searching for, pick Title or Author; when you are searching for a topic, start with Keyword unless you know the exact Subject heading describing your topic.
More on searching the Catalogue is available in Module 5 of the Research Skills Tutorial in D2L.
E-books are located in two different places:
- Some may be located by using the library’s catalogue. These records will have [electronic resource] in the title.
- E-books can also be located by searching in e-book collections. Searching in these collections is the same as searching in a database.
Recommended E-Book Collections
In addition to books, you may wish to search for book-length Master's theses or Ph.D dissertations.
Best bet: Dissertations and Theses (ProQuest).
If you are also looking for recent theses or dissertations produced by Laurentian graduates, check out our Research Repository - LUZONE. Note that since 2013, before graduation all Master's and Doctoral candidates MUST deposit their theses or dissertations in this repository.
Articles: Quick Tips
The databases to the right provide references to many scholarly journal articles and papers.
- Start off with keyword searches expressing your topic. Keyword searching crosses all fields.
- Use Search Operators such as "OR" and "AND" to expand or reduce your results.
- Review those items that look relevant, then, exploit the details within those entries to help lead you to other relevant articles.
- Pay attention to the subject headings (often called "descriptors") to see how the database describes your topic and use them to find related articles.
- Find other papers written by the same author; these will typically be on similar subjects.
- Follow citation trails: other articles that have cited this article will probably be on a related subject and will include citations to other articles of interest.
- For more Secrets of Searching a Database, review that section in How to Research Like a Librarian.
Peer Review is the evaluation of creative work by scholars in the same field in order to maintain or enhance the quality of the work in that field.
In the case of peer reviewed journals, which are usually academic, peer review generally refers to the evaluation of the articles in them prior to publication. For more, check out this definition of peer review.
- To ascertain whether a journal is peer reviewed, consult Ulrichsweb.
Recommended Starting Databases
- Bibliography of Native North Americans
- Portal: Indigenous Studies Portal Research Tool From the University of Saskatchewan, the Indigenous Studies Portal (iPortal) connects researchers with electronic resources: books, articles, theses, documents, photographs, archival resources, maps, etc. The vision of iPortal is to provide one place to look to find resources for Indigenous Studies.
Specialized Subject Databases
- Autochtonia (Indigenous peoples living in Quebec. For full cite, cick +Référence)
- Caninuit (An annotated source of information about the magazines, journals, newspapers and newsletters of Canada's Inuit peoples and communities. This web site was created in 2008 and the annotations are being updated and augmented regularly by the editor. Caninuit can be browsed by title or category, or searched in anyword (Find) mode.
- ELibrary Aboriginal Health Resource Site (University of Victoria)
- First Nations Periodical Index (Mostly Canadian content)
- Hubert Wenger Eskimo Database (University of Alaska, Fairbanks. A collection of historical images, maps and written sources concerning Inuit/Eskimo peoples. Covers 19th and 20th century, but is not meant as a source of current information.)
- Metis Centre of HAHO Databases (Material on Metis health and well-being and social determinants of health)
- Native Health Database (Sponsored by the University of New Mexico, encompasses Indigenous peoples throughout North America)
Some Related Databases
- Academic OneFile
- America: History and Life
- Anthropology Plus
- ASTIS Arctic Science and Technology Information System (ASTIS) database
- Canadian Business & Current Affairs™ (CBCA) Complete
- Canadian Periodicals Index Quarterly (CPI.Q)
- eHRAF World Cultures
- European Views of the Americas: 1493 to 1750
- ERIC (ProQuest)
- Social Services Abstracts
- Social Work Abstracts
- ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source
Some Open Access Journals
- Canadian Journal of Native Studies: 1981- Brandon University
- Cultural Survival Quarterly: 1982- Cultural Survival, Cambridge MA
- Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society: 2012- Ontario Institute for Studies in Education
- First Nations Perspectives: 2008- Manitoba First Nations Education Resource Centre
- First Peoples Child & Family Review: 2004- First Nations Caring Society of Canada
- JAH: Journal of Aboriginal Health: 2004- National Aboriginal Health Organization, Ottawa
- IK: Other Ways of Knowing: 2015- Penn State. Publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of indigenous knowledge from a global perspective
- International Indigenous Policy Journal: 2010- University of Western Ontario
- International Journal of Critical Indigenous Studies: 2008-Indigenous Studies Research Network, Australia
- International Journal of Indigenous Health: 2004- University of Victoria
- Journal of Indigenous Social Development (JISD): 2012- University of Manitoba. Committed to advancing education, practice, research and policymaking relevant to indigenous peoples’ social and economic wellbeing.
- Pimatisiwin: A Journal of Aboriginal and Indigenous Community Health: 2003-2013. Native Counselling Services of Alberta
- Anishinabek News The voice of the Anishinabek nation (Union of Ontario Indians).
- First Nations Drum Canada's largest First Nations Newspaper.
- Turtle Island News "Canada's only national native weekly newspaper, published every week at the Grand River Territory of the Six Nations in southern Ontario. It is a politically independent newspaper that is wholly owned and operated by Aboriginal people."
- Wataway News Online Northern Ontario's First Nations Voice Since 1974.
When researching a paper, it is useful to consult the citations used by the author of an article that you find relevant. But that article itself may have been cited by other authors after it was first written. Two sources help you identify such citations:
Getting Articles @ Laurentian
In any database, when you see an article that interests you, click on it and, unless the article is available within the database itself, within the record you will see an image that says "Get it @ Laurentian":
When you click on that, you will arrive at a menu which will lead to an electronic copy of the article you want, or, if not available electronically, to Laurentian's catalogue which will allow you to check if the article is available in print in the library, and if not, to a final link which allows you to order the item through Interlibrary loan.
Need a Film Not in Laurentian's Online Film Collections?
Consult: Watmedia (Provincial Multi-media Catalogue). Material held by Laurentian may be signed out in the library. To order a film not available at Laurentian, please email LUFilmLibrary@laurentian.ca and specify the date(s) you require the item.
Questions: Please contact Ashley Thomson who manages the Intrafilm Project.
- Aboriginal Links (Canada and the U.S.)
- First Nations, Métis and Inuit Peoples (Winnipeg portal)
- First Nations Profile (Canada. Aboriginal Affairs)
- Index of Native American Resources on the Internet
- Native Web
- Yearbook: Indigenous World
Business and Commerce
Cultural Awareness (for non-Indigenous)
Doctrine of Discovery
- Aboriginal Bursaries Search Tool
- First Nations, Métis & Inuit Education Association of Ontario
- Ontario College of Teachers: Aboriginal Teaching and Teacher Education
- Ontario First Nations, Metis and Inuit Education Policy Framework
- The Ontario curriculum, Native Studies, Grades 9 and 10, 1999.
- The Ontario curriculum, Native Studies, Grades 11 and 12, 2000.
- Annual Reports of the [U.S.] Commissioner of Indian Affairs
- National Museum of the American Indian - Collections Search (Includes a representative sample of NMAI's object and historic photo collections. Some Canadian coverage)
- Our Voices - Stories of Canadian People and Culture
- Our Voices, Our Stories: First Nations, Métis and Inuit Stories
- Glenbow Archives Photographs related to the history of western Canada, with a strong Blackfoot collection.
- Images Canada 75,000+ images from Library and Archives Canada and other Canadian cultural institutions.
- Mi'kmaq Portrait Collection 700+ Portraits and illustrations at the Nova Scotia Museum.
- Native American Authors (Internet Public Library) Brief biographies and contextual information about Aboriginal authors from Canada and the US. Search by author, title, or tribal or band affiliation (not updated)
National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls
Canadian Public Opinion on Aboriginal Peoples (An Environics Survey)
- Anishnabek Nation (Union of Ontario Indians)
- Assembly of First Nations
- Association of Iroquois & Allied Indians
- Congress of Aboriginal Peoples
- Grand Council of Treaty # 3
- Inuit Tapirisat of Canada
- Metis Nation of Ontario
- Nishnawbe Aski Nation - NAN
- Native Women's Association of Canada
- Aboriginal Healing Foundation
- Anglican Church of Canada - Residential Schools
- Assembly of First Nations - Indian Residential Schools Unit
- Four Worlds Residential School Healing Program
- Health Canada - Residential School Support Program
- Indian Residential School Survivors Society
- Indian Residential Schools Resolution Canada
- Legacy of Hope Foundation
- National Research Centre: Indian Residential Schools
- Native Residential Schools in Canada: A Selective Bibliography
- Presbyterian Church
- The Residential School System
- Shingwauk Project
- Turtle Island Native Network
- United Church of Canada
- Where are the Children? Healing the Legacy of Residential Schools
- Aboriginal Peoples (Statistics Canada)
Truth and Reconciliation Commission
We cite sources to acknowledge the work of others, as well as to avoid academic dishonesty or plagiarism.
The University of Toronto has made available a comprehensive set of guidelines on How NOT to Plagiarize which deserves to be read by every student.
Citation Style in Laurentian's indigenous Programs
At Laurentian, professors will specify the citation style to be used. To learn more about individual citation styles, consult Laurentian's guide to citation styles.
Zotero is a FREE web-based citation manager that will allow you to:
- Directly import references from article databases, the library catalogue, e-book collections, etc.
- Manage and organize your references.
- Create a bibliography.
- Share your references with others
- Add in-text citation and a bibliography directly into your assignment
Getting started with Zotero:
- Sign up for library workshop when available.
- View Quick Start Guide (video) or Tutorials (videos)
- Consult one of Zotero's own User Guides or McMaster University's Quick Start Guide or the Zotero Guide by the University of Ontario Institute of Technology