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The Chicago Manual of Style is most commonly used in Humanities and Social Sciences. The most recent version of Chicago is the 16th Edition which is available at the Information Desk on the 2nd floor of the J.N. Desmarais Library, or you may consult Purdue University’s well-respected and up-to-date online guide.

N.B. Chicago uses two different forms: the Author-Date system and the Notes and Bibliography system. The latter is the most commonly used in humanities. Turabian Style is based on the two Chicago forms, but it does not constitute Chicago. Make sure you use the proper style and form as requested by your professor.

In the following quick reference guide, we will be using Chicago Notes and Bibliography. For the first notation, include all of the source information: author, title, and publishing data. When citing a source a second time, include the author’s last name, the abbreviated title, and the pages. If a source is cited more than two times successively, use “Ibid.” followed by the page numbers (if differing). Notes are formatted as footnotes or endnotes beginning with “1.”



N.B. Chicago style uses hanging indents in its bibliography (which is not replicated here).

Lastname, Firstname. Book Title. Location of publication: publisher, year.

Obama, Barack. The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream. New York: Vintage Books, 2006.

Translated Book

Lastname, Firstname. Book Title. Translated by Firstname Lastname. Location of publication: publisher, year.

De Saint-Exupéry, Antoine. The Little Prince. Translated by Katherine Woods. San Diego: Harcourt, Brace, & World, 1971.

Chapter in a Collected Work

Lastname, Firstname. “Chapter Title.” In Book Title, edited by Firstname Lastname, pages. Location of publication: publisher, year.

Barman, Jean. “Taming Aboriginal sexuality: Gender, Power, and Race in British Columbia, 1850-1900.” In In the Days of our Grandmothers: A Reader in Aboriginal Women’s History in Canada. Edited by Mary-Ellen Kelm and Lorna Townsend, 270-300. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010.

Journal Article

Lastname, Firstname. “Article Title.” Journal Title Volume, no.# (year): pages. Accessed Month day, year (if applicable). URL or doi.

Buchanan, Brett. “The Time of the Animal.” PhaenEx: Journal of Existential and Phenomenological Theory and Culture, 2 no.2 (2007): 61-80. Accessed >November 7, 2012.

Newspaper Article

Lastname, Firstname. “Article Title.” Newspaper (place of publication), Month day, year. URL (if applicable).

Smith, Teresa. “Drought-Stricken Almonte Farmer Receives Much-Needed Hay from Saskatchewan.” Ottawa Citizen (Ottawa), October 31, 2012.

Online Presentation /Conference

Name of presenter. “Presentation Title if available.” Presented to Name of conference and organization, place, date. URL.

Brown, Brené. “The Power of Vulnerability.” Presented to Ted Talks, Houston, June 2010.


Author, screen name, or editor. “Title of page.” Website name, date last modified (if available). Date accessed (if not modified). URL.

Historica Dominion Institute. Richard Pierpoint. Historica Dominion Institute. Accessed November 8, 2012.


Generally, blogs are listed in the notes and not the bibliography. However, if it is a blog of significance you may add it to your bibliography. If the title includes the word “blog” there is no need to repeat it within parentheses.

In the notes:
Author or screen name, “Title of Article,” Title of Blog (blog), creation date, URL.

Geist, Michael, “Canadian Copyright Reform in Force: Expanded User Rights Now the Law,” Michael Geist, November 7, 2012,