You are here

The Harvard style uses an author-date system and is most commonly used in Sciences. The last name of the author and the date are cited within the text, with the complete details being included at the end of the paper in the bibliography.

There is no official guide for Harvard, which is a popular name for various forms of parenthetical referencing. The Anglia Ruskin University has a well-respected and up-to-date online version of one of the most popular guides for the Harvard System.


N.B. Harvard uses hanging indents (which is not replicated here).



Author, A. A., Year. Title of book. Location of publication: Publisher.

Obama, B., 2006. The audacity of hope: Thoughts on reclaiming the American dream. New York: Vintage Books.

Translated Book

Author, A. A., year of original publication. Book title. Translated from Language by A. A. Translator, year of translated publication. Location of publication: Publisher.

De Saint-Exupéry, A., 1943. The little prince. Translated from French by K. Woods, 1971. San Diego: Harcourt, Brace, & World.

Chapter in a Collected Work

Author, A. A., year of chapter (if differs from book, otherwise book year). Title of chapter. In: A. A. Editor, ed. Year of book (if different). Book title. Location of publication: Publisher, pp. pages.

Barman, J., 2010. Taming aboriginal sexuality: Gender, power, and race in British Columbia, 1850-1900. In: M.-E. Kelm and L. Townsend, eds. In the days of our grandmothers: A reader in Aboriginal women’s history in Canada Toronto: University of Toronto Press, pp. 270-300.

Online Journal Article

Author, A. A. and Author, B. B., year. Title of article. Journal title, [e-journal] volume(issue), pages. Available from: Library Website name <URL> [viewed day month year].

Buchanan, B., 2007. The time of the animal. PhaenEx: Journal of Existential and Phenomenological Theory and Culture [e-journal], 2(2), pp.61-80. Available at: J.N. Desmarais Library and Archives <> [viewed 7 November 2012].

Online Newspaper Article

Author, A. A., year. Title of article. Newspaper, [medium] additional date information, pages if available. Available from: <URL> [viewed day Month year].

Smith, T., 2012. Drought-stricken Almonte farmer receives much-needed hay from Saskatchewan. Ottawa Citizen, [online] 31 October. Available at: < [viewed 3 November 2012].


Author or source, year. Name of page or document. [Medium] (date of last modification if available) Available at: <URL> [viewed day Month year].

Historica Dominion Institute. n.d. Richard Pierpoint. [online] Available at: < [viewed 5 November 2012].


Author or screen name, year. Title of post. Name of Blogue, [medium] posting date. Available at: <URL> [viewed day Month year].

Geist, M., 2012. Canadian copyright reform in force: Expanded user rights now the law. Michael Geist, [online] 7 November. Available at: <> [viewed 7 November 2012].