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The IEEE Editorial Style Manual is most commonly used in Engineering and technological sciences, the most recent version being from 2009. The references are listed by numerological order of the textual citations. IEEE possesses the following characteristics:

  • The first name (or initials) of the author is listed first.
  • Article and chapter titles take quotation marks.
  • Journal and book titles are in italics.
  • Journal titles are abbreviated according to ISSN.
  • References in the bibliography are listed according to the order that they appear in text (not alphabetically), and are numbered.
  • Use “et al.” when listing four or more authors. 
For citation information that cannot be found in The IEEE Editorial Style Manual, it is recommended that you consult The Chicago Manual of Style.
N.B. the Canadian Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (CJECE) follows the IEEE style with some exceptions. For more information on the CJECE Style Guide visit IEEE Canada.
In-text citation example: Several studies [9], [14], [15] (or [9, 14, 15]) exhibit different results…

Author(s), Book Title, #ed. (if applicable), Place of publication: Publisher, year, pages.

[1] Barack Obama. The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream. New York: Vintage Books, 2006, p.36.

Chapter from a Collected Work

Author(s), “Chapter Title,” in Book Title, edition, volume. Ed. Editor. Place of publication: Publisher, year, pages.

[2] J. Barman, “Taming Aboriginal Sexuality: Gender, Power, and Race in British Columbia, 1850-1900,” in In the Days of our Grandmothers: A Reader in Aboriginal Women’s History in Canada. Eds. M.-E. Kelm and L. Townsend. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010, pp. 270-300.

Journal Article

Author(s), "Article Title," Jour. Title, vol., no., pages, date.

[3] B. Buchanan, “The Time of the Animal," PhaenEx: J. Existent. Phenomenological Theory Culture, vol.2, no.2, pp.61-80. 2007.

Electronic Conventions on digital resource citations are constantly evolving. IEEE digital references are based significantly on the standard ISO 690: 2010, which is subject to modification. Generally, when referencing electronic sources, where possible one should identify: 1) the document, 2) the access medium (online, CD-ROM, etc.), 3) the access date, and 4) where it is available.
Online Journal Article

Author(s). (Year, month day). Article Title. Abbreviated Journal Title [Medium]. Vol(issue), pages. Available: URL.

[5] B. Buchanan. (2007). The Time of the Animal. PhaenEx: J. Existent. Phenomenological Theory Culture [Online]. 2(2), pp.61-80. 2007. Available:


Author(s). (Year, month day). Title (edition) [Medium]. Vol(issue). Available: URL.

Franco Pirajno. (2009). Hydrothermal processes and mineral systems [Online]. Available:

Online Conference

Author(s). Title. Presented at Conference [Medium]. Available : URL.

Brené Brown. The power of vulnerability. Presented at Ted Talks Houston June 2010 [Online]. Available: