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Vancouver Citation Style (NLM)

The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (or Vancouver Citation Style) is primarily used in medical research. The most recent edition for the NLM guide is the 2nd, released in 2007, for more in-depth citation questions, this edition should be consulted. Some key points regarding Vancouver references:

  • All authors are listed,
  • List as much information as possible when referencing websites,
  • Journal titles are abbreviated,
  • Quotation marks and italics are generally not used,
  • References are numbered within brackets by order of appearance. If a reference appears multiple times, it maintains its original number,
  • Titles of books should be presented in their original language [followed by a translation between brackets whenever possible], with the language listed at the end of the reference,
  • Titles of non-English journal articles should be translated into English and placed within brackets, title of the journal itself should be in the original language.

In-text citation example:

The new copyright reform bill has officially taken effect and with it the digital locks are in force, however there are some exceptions on those locks, such as with encryption research [9, 10].


Author AA. Book title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher; year.

Barack O. The audacity of hope: thoughts on reclaiming the American dream. New York: Vintage Books; 2006.

Author AA. Book title [medium]. Place of publication: Publisher; year [cited year mon day]. Available from: URL.

Marlatt GA, Witkiewitz K. Addictive behaviors: new readings on etiology, prevention, and treatment [Internet]. Washington D.C.: Am Psychol Assoc; 2009 [cited 2010 Dec 2]. Available from:
Chapter of a Collected Work

Author AA, Author BB. Chapter title. In: Editor AA, editor. Book title. Place of publication : Publisher; year. p. pages.

Barman, J. Taming aboriginal sexuality: Gender, power, and race in British Columbia, 1850-1900. In: Kelm M-E and Townsend L, editors. In the days of our grandmothers: a reader in Aboriginal women’s history in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010pp. 270-300.

Book in Two Languages

Author AA. Titre du livre = Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher; year. Languages.

Institut de Recherches Internationales Servier. Le génome : avancées scientifiques et thérapeutiques et conséquences sociales = The genome: scientific and therapeutic developments and social consequences. Paris: Elsevier; c2002. French, English.

Journal Article

Author AA, Author BB. Article title. Abbrev. Journal Title. Year month day; volume(issue): pages.

Buchanan B. The time of the animal. PhaenEx, 2007; 2(2), p. 61-80.

Online Journal Article

Author AA, Author BB. Article title. Abbrev. Journal Title [medium]. Year mon day [cited year mon day]; volume(issue): pages. Available from: URL

Buchanan B. The Time of the Animal. PhaenEx [Internet]. 2007 [cited 2009 May 7]; 2(2), pp.61-80. Available from:

Online Newspaper Article

Author AA. Article title. Newspaper [medium]. Year mon day [cited year mon day]; Section: [general location]. Available from: URL

Smith T. Drought-stricken Almonte farmer receives much-needed hay from Saskatchewan. Ottawa Citizen [Internet]. 2012 Oct 31 [cited 2012 Nov 5]; News: [Ottawa]. Available from :


Author(s). Web site name [Medium]. Place of publication: Publisher; year [updated year Mon day; cited year Mon day]. Available from: URL

Health Canada. Drug and Health Products [Internet]. Heath Canada; 2012 [mise à jour 2012 Nov 2; cited 2012 Nov 11]. Available from:


Author(s). Blog title [medium]. Place of publication: Publisher. Year Mon day – [cited year Mon day]. Available from: URL

Geist M. Canadian copyright reform in force: expanded user rights now the law [Internet]. Ottawa: Michael Geist. 2012 Nov 7- [cited 2012 Nov 9]. Available from: