You are here
APA is most often used in the Humanities and Social Sciences (such as Psychology and Information Studies). The 6th Edition of the Manual of the American Psychological Association is the most recent publication and is available at the Service Desk on the 2nd floor of the J.N. Desmarais Library. You could also consult the highly respected and up-to-date online APA reference guide from Purdue University.
“So long as settler society perceived a need to tame Aboriginal sexuality, men in power could reorder Aboriginal society with impunity” (Barman, 2010, 284).
Example of paraphrasing (It is not required to include page numbers for paraphrasing, but it is recommended):
Barman (2010) expands on aboriginal sexual deceptions by institutions, giving documentary evidence of the depiction of uncontrollable sexuality (283-284).
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book: Capital used on the first word after the colon. Publication place: Publisher.
Obama, B. (2006). The audacity of hope: Thoughts on reclaiming the American dream. New York: Vintage Books.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book: Capital used on the first word after the colon. (Name(s) of translators, Trans.). Publication place: Publisher. (Original work published date).
De Saint-Exupéry, A. (1971). The little prince. (K. Woods, Trans.). San Diego: Harcourt, Brace, & World. (Original work published 1943).
|Chapter in a Collected Works||
Author, A. A. (Year). Chapter title. In Editor, B. (Ed.), Title of book: Capital used on the first word after the colon (pages). Publication place: Publisher.
Barman, J. (2010). Taming Aboriginal sexuality: Gender, power, and race in British Columbia, 1850-1900. In Kelm, M.-E. and Townsend, L. (Eds.), In the days of our grandmothers: A reader in Aboriginal women’s history in Canada (270-300). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Article title. Journal title, volume(issue). Retrieved from URL or doi
Buchanan, B. (2007). The time of the animal. PhaenEx: Journal of Existential and Phenomenological Theory and Culture, 2(2), 61-80. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/43243630?accountid=12005
Author, A. A. (Year, Month day). Article title. Name of newspaper. Retrieved from URL
Smith, T. (2012, October 31). Drought-stricken Almonte farmer receives much-needed hay from Saskatchewan. Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved from http://www.ottawacitizen.com/news/ottawa/Drought+stricken+Almonte+farmer...
Organisation. (Year). Project name if available [type of data]. Retrieved from URL
Statistics Canada. (2006). 2006 cumulative profile, provinces and territories in Canada: Common-law couples, couple families by family structure [data table]. Retrieved from http://estat.statcan.gc.ca/cgi-win/cnsmcgi.pgm
Title of page. (Year, Month day). Retrieved Date from ___ Wiki: URL
Travel news. (2012, October 26). Retrieved November 7, 2012 from Wikitravel: http://wikitravel.org/en/Travel_news
|Online Presentation /Conference||
Author, A. A. (Year, Month day). Title of presentation [format]. Retrieved from URL
Brown, B. (2010, June). The power of vulnerability [video]. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/brene_brown_on_vulnerability.html
Author or Organisation. (Year, Month day). "Title of presentation". [format]. Retrieved from URL
ESPNInternational. (2011, March 6). "Roy Halladay All-Access." [YouTube]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zv_9TlBs5Mg
Author or Organisation. (Year, Month day). Page/document title. Retrieved from URL
Historica Dominion Institute. (n.d.). Richard Pierpoint. Retrieved from https://www.historica-dominion.ca/content/heritage-minutes/richard-pierp...
Author or screen name. (Year, Month day). Title of post [blog]. Retrieved from URL.
Geist, Michael. (2012, November 7). Canadian copyright reform in force: Expanded user rights now the law [blog]. Retrieved from http://www.michaelgeist.ca/content/view/6692/125/
The DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
When it is available, APA style requires the addition of a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) in a reference. In essence, the DOI is a permanent link to the cited document when it is avaiable online. For more see the chart below prepared by APA in 2009: